Hind,p 67, Houghton Mifflin Co. Deux siècles d'élégance masculine, Paris Das "historische" Kostüm im Include your email address to get a message when this question is answered.
The increasingly dark and unadorned middle class male suit, with its fixed repertoire of drainpipe trousers of various kinds, shirt, waistcoat and jacket, emphasized functionality and objectivity, and has remained the standard form of middle class dress up to the present.
However, female fashion — in particular, the corset — became the subject of a European-wide reform movement which had less of an influence in France and southern Europe in the last third of the 19th century. Doctors such as Carl Heinrich Stratz — and Heinrich Lahmann — , the zoologist Gustav Jäger — , and the artists Henry van de Velde — , Richard Riemerschmid — , Alfred Mohrbutter — and Gustav Klimt — all participated in this movement along with the middle class feminist movement.
Other cultural movements, such as sport and nudism the German Free Body Culture , propagated the ideal of the body freed from the constraints of fashion in accordance with the example of classical antiquity Venus de Milo and advocated the introduction of far greater functionality and freedom of movement in female clothing to make it suitable for modernizing processes.
While discussions about fashion and dress were dominated by legal and economic considerations dress regulations , or religious constraints sermons up to the beginning of the 19th century, the discourse on dress now shifted to the arenas of politics, science and art. In the process, the focus shifted to the relationship between dress, the individual and society. Two other notable phenomena in the development of fashion in the 19th century deserve mention. Emerging as a result of the standing armies and new military techniques of absolutist states in the 18th century, the phenomenon of uniforms gave rise to specifically male forms of clothing.
Initially confined to the military, uniforms became increasingly common in the civil organs of the state. Uniforms signalled the disciplining hygiene, posture of the male body, making it a visual symbol and instrument for the enforcement of state authority.
The second phenomenon pertains to the large-scale, Europe-wide emergence during the 19th century of regional rural clothing styles traditional dress. These styles emerged as a result of new processes of rural stratification and identity formation, but also as a result of the middle class romanticization of rural life.
In Eastern European countries in particular, rural folklore was instrumentalized by movements for national independence. In the 20th century and particularly in the s, a fundamental transformation of concepts of gender and gender roles occurred in fashion, as in society generally. This reform process culminated in the s in the phenomenon of the "new woman" with bobbed hair, a cigarette and wearing a knee-length skirt or shirt dress, thereby revealing the naked female leg which had been hidden from public view for centuries.
This was indicative of a new self-confidence among women, who in the context of increasing visible female employment as secretaries, employees and telephonists used fashion as a means of professional advancement and who for the first time could act independently in public. While male dress had previously been considered an expression of modernity, it now appeared conservative and too bound to the staid, monotonous middle class suit.
The topos of the "new woman" was propagated by the numerous fashion journals of the period which aimed at various social clienteles. With the development of fashion photography, a new type of image emerged, which enabled a new perception of fashion by means of close-up photographs of the body and face, as well as photographs of individual details.
This easier and cheaper means of producing visual representations of fashion accelerated the pace of fashion change and, through a close symbiosis with the growing film industry, created a new phenomenon of stars and models. In this way, it contributed to the discursive production and circulation of gender concepts and roles. In the s, a general conservatism returned to female fashion and to concepts of the role of the women in the form of "motherliness" and an emphasis on gender differences in many European countries.
However, this did not change the basic fashion features of the modern female appearance. As so often in history, it became clear that clothing fashion requires an international context in which to develop. Under National Socialist rule — , the desire for a German fashion remained more a propagandistic strategy than a reality. There were, however, attempts to put the German public in uniforms League of German Maidens groups, parades, the promotion of national costumes such as the dirndl.
Many developments in fashion unfolded in a fairly similar way throughout Europe, but were combined with specific national or regional characteristics. They did not unfold at the same pace in all places and they did not affect all social classes to the same extent. The rule of Napoleon Bonaparte — did not result in the general adoption of French fashion, but rather resulted in tendencies towards a return to national forms of fashion. This was reflected in the Journal des Luxus und der Moden , which abandoned its earlier enthusiasm for French fashion, championing instead national fashions as advocated by Justus Möser — Under the influence of the Slavophile movement in Russia and in order to emphasize Russian national characteristics, Russian national dress was resurrected and even prescribed for ceremonial occasions at the imperial court On the other hand, even politically motivated measures such as the blockade of England could not dampen French enthusiasm for English male fashion.
After the French Revolution, England and France emerged as the two main fashion powers in production, trade and design. While London enjoyed a monopoly in male fashion, Paris was dominant in female fashion, and later also became the leader of high-fashion design with the establishment of the system of couture beginning with Charles Fréderic Worth — during the rule of Napoleon III — Around , Berlin became the most important centre for the production and trade of ready-made clothes, thanks primarily to textile and clothing manufacturers of Jewish, French Huguenot and northern Italy Piedmont origin.
The "language" of fashion was almost ubiquitously European and emphasized its roots in European urbanity. The fashion journals of the 19th and earlyth centuries borrowed from imagined oriental fashion styles, emphasizing the European links with the colonial world. As is often the case with fashion developments, this involved the import and export of images, propagandist arguments, fantasies and moods, rather than the actual adoption of foreign culture.
The power of a specific "fashion" depends on a number of instruments such as communication, competent cultural agencies, or political and social events to which fashion reacts in an almost seismographic manner. Dictated fashion trends, on the other hand, very rarely prove successful. In the 19th century, the networks of production and trade, travel and a nascent tourism promoted the European-wide transmission of middle class fashion.
In the first half of the 20th century, artistic movements also participated in this process, in particular avant-garde movements such as Italian futurism ca. Fashion discourses also reflect resistance to new influences, a subject which returned with periodic regularity from the late Middle Ages to the modern period s , though the ideological basis of the resistance constantly changed.
Foreign fashion influences are often perceived as a threat, because they can change traditional identities, concepts and norms. In this way, foreign fashions are criticized in the moral-satirical literature of the Reformation. This phenomenon often combined economic interests with genuine moral principles. Considerable criticism was directed at the fashion power France in the 18th and 19th centuries , which was considered too dominant and criticized in print.
While objections to French dominance in the lateth century were primarily motivated by mercantilist wishes to promote indigenous industry, the fashion discourses from the earlyth century reform clothing until the s were strongly characterized by strongly nationalist — even chauvinistic — tendencies.
In retrospect, the European fashion landscape demonstrates the degree to which the historical diversity of European fashion oscillated between European self and the other; between the heterogeneity of the nations and a common European identity; between Europe and North America on the one hand, and the non-European world represented by the Orient, Africa and Latin America on the other. The forced Westernization of Russian dress habits under Peter I demonstrates the degree to which the adoption of the Western European fashion of the period around was viewed as a sign that a society was ready to participate in general European modernization processes.
Conversely, the return to traditional Byzantine garb under the influence of the Slavophile movement was motivated by modern nationalist thought. Due to a general scarcity of materials in the immediate post-war period, fashion remained relatively plain and similar in style to the war years, even though there continued to be international fashion activity, as the fashion journals prove. In the context of the spread of American-style mass-consumption after , however, there was an explosion in the development of fashion Dior and New Look, production under license , especially in female fashion.
This fashion is characterized by an accelerated pace of change and the massive consumption of fashion trends, which oscillate between extreme eroticization the mini-skirt and trends towards emancipation. In addition to haute couture, fashion has received new impulses from the youth cultures that have developed since the s, such as teenagers and hippies, and latterly the punk, techno and hip-hop scenes.
Instead of the previously vertical social system trickle down , as described by Georg Simmel — in his theories on fashion , there is a mixing of diverse influences, whereby fashion developments have become a subtle negotiation of changed gender and group constructions, and the staging of the self has become central. Über die Moden, s. Dictionnaire universel, contenant generalement tous les mots françois, Rotterdam , vol. Uniformkunde, Rathenow —, vol. Paris, London und die europäische Provinz: Die frühen Modejournale, —, Frankfurt am Main Die Erfindung der Nation: Zur Karriere eines folgenreiches Konzepts, Frankfurt am Main Wir sind nackt und nennen uns Du: Patterns of Fashion, London , vol.
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Zur Trachtenbegeisterung auf dem Land vom ausgehenden Jahrhundert bis zur Gegenwart, Münster et al. Ein Seismograph des Zeitgeistes: Angela Borchert et al.
Das Journal des Luxus und der Moden: Kultur um , Heidelberg , pp. Vom Siegeszug des bürgerlichen Männeranzuges im Masculinities, Fashion and City Life, —, Manchester The Culture of Fashion: Beiträge zur geistesgeschichtlichen und volkskundlichen Kleidungsforschung, Münster Beiträge zur Volkskultur in Nordwestdeutschland Wunschbilder und Wirklichkeit, Würzburg Kleidung und Mode in der höfischen Epik des Kleidung als sozialer Konfliktstoff: Probleme kleidergesetzlicher Normierung im sozialen Gefüge, in: Zum Problem städtischer und territorialer Kleider-, Aufwands- und Luxusgesetzgebung in Deutschland André Gouron et al.
Renaissance du pouvoir législatif et genèse de l'Etat, Montpellier , pp. Kleider und Stoffe, in: Literatur und Gesellschaft im hohen Mittelalter, München , pp. Des modes et des hommes: Deux siècles d'élégance masculine, Paris Über Jahre am Laufsteg der Mode, Göttingen Modekritik und "deutsches" Kleid in der Zeit der Weimarer Republik: Zur Vorgeschichte der Trachtenpflege im Nationalsozialismus, in: Jahrbuch für Volkskunde, Neue Folge 14 , pp.
Glanz und Schatten der Mode, in: Wulf Köpke et al. Das gemeinsame Haus Europa: Handbuch zur Europäischen Kulturgeschichte, München , pp. Eine verschlüsselte Geschichte, in: Gabriele Mentges et al.
Von der "Lesbarkeit der Welt" zum universalisierten Wandel durch individuelle Strategien: Die soziale Funktion der Kleidung in der höfischen Gesellschaft, in: Zeitschrift für historische Forschung 19 , pp. Mode unter dem Vichy-Regime: Frauenbild und Frauenmode in Frankreich zur Zeit der deutschen Besatzung, —, Pfaffenweiler L'Orient et la mode en Europe au temps des Lumières, in: Zwischen Abgrenzung und Einbindung: Kleidermoden im Reichsfürstenstand des späten Ulrich Knefelkamp et al.
Grenze und Grenzüberschreitung im Mittelalter, Berlin , pp. Women in Weimar Fashion: Discourses and Displays in German Culture, —, Rochester et al. Kleidung als Medium der Geschlechterkonstruktion, Cologne et al. The Sex of Things: Gender and Consumption in Historical Perspective, Berkeley Zur Situation in Nürnberg bis , in: Elizabeth Rodini et al.
A Well Fashioned Image: Clothing and Costume in European Art, —, Chicago , pp. Die Kleider des Körpers des Kaufmanns: Zum "Trachtenbuch" eines Augsburger Bürgers im Zeitschrift für Historische Forschung 25 , pp.
Berliner Mode in der Photographie, Tübingen et al. Deutsche Ziviluniformen im Eine Ausstellung im Deutschen Textilmuseum, Krefeld Die zivile Uniform als symbolische Kommunikation: Kleidung zwischen Repräsentation, Imagination und Konsumption in Europa vom Konturen der städtischen Reformation, Göttingen Technischer Fortschritt und Frauenarbeit im Zur Sozialgeschichte der Nähmaschine, in: Geschichte und Gesellschaft 4 , pp.
Geschmack, Mode und Weiblichkeit: Anleitungen zur alltäglichen Distinktion in Modezeitschriften der Weimarer Republik, in: Geschlecht und materielle Kultur, Münster , pp.
Das spanische Hofzeremoniell von —, Frankfurt am Main et al. Fashion Theory 5 , pp. Law and Human Relations in the West, London et al. Alltag im Spätmittelalter, Augsburg , pp. Costume et dispositif vestimentaire à la cour de Philippe le Bon de à , Dijon Renaissance Clothing and the Materials of Memory, Cambridge Frankfurt Macht Mode — The most easily recognisable difference between the two groups was in male costume, where the invading peoples generally wore short tunics , with belts, and visible trousers , hose or leggings.
The Romanised populations, and the Church, remained faithful to the longer tunics of Roman formal costume, coming below the knee, and often to the ankles. By the end of the period, these distinctions had finally disappeared, and Roman dress forms remained mainly as special styles of clothing for the clergy — the vestments that have changed relatively little up to the present day.
Many aspects of clothing in the period remain unknown. This is partly because only the wealthy were buried with clothing; it was rather the custom that most people were buried in burial shrouds , also called winding sheets. Apart from the elite, most people in the period had low living standards, and clothes were probably home-made, usually from cloth made at a village level, and very simply cut. The elite imported silk cloth from the Byzantine, and later Muslim, worlds, and also probably cotton.
They also could afford bleached linen and dyed and simply patterned wool woven in Europe itself. But embroidered decoration was probably very widespread, though not usually detectable in art. Most people probably wore only wool or linen, usually undyed, and leather or fur from locally hunted animals.
Archaeological finds have shown that the elite, especially men, could own superb jewellery, most commonly brooches to fasten their cloak, but also buckles , purses , weapon fittings, necklaces and other forms. The Sutton Hoo finds and the Tara Brooch are two of the most famous examples from the Ireland and Britain in the middle of the period.
In France, over three hundred gold and jewelled bees were found in the tomb of the Merovingian king Childeric I died ; all but two bees have since been stolen and lost , which are thought to have been sewn onto his cloak.
In Anglo-Saxon England, and probably most of Europe, only free people could carry a seax or knife, and both sexes normally wore one at the waist, to use for all purposes. Both men's and women's clothing was trimmed with bands of decoration, variously embroidery , tablet-woven bands, or colourful borders woven into the fabric in the loom.
Anglo-Saxons wore decorated belts. The primary garment was the tunic — generally a long fabric panel, folded over with a neck-hole cut into the fold, and sleeves attached. It was typical for the wealthy to display their affluence with a longer tunic made of finer and more colorful cloth, even silk or silk-trimmed.
The tunic was usually belted, with either a leather or strong fabric belt. Depending on climate, trousers were tailored either loose or tight or not worn at all if the weather was warm. The most basic leggings were strips of cloth wound round the leg, and held in place by long laces, presumably of leather, which is called cross-gartering. This may have been done with loose-fitting trousers also. Tighter-fitting hose were also worn. Over this a sleeved tunic was worn, which for the upper classes gradually became longer towards the end of the period.
For peasants and warriors it was always at the knee or above. For winter, outside or formal dress, a cloak or mantle completed the outfit. The Franks had a characteristic short cape called a "saie", which barely came to the waist. This was fastened on the left shoulder so as not to impede sword strokes by a brooch , typically a fibula and later a round brooch on the Continent, and nearly always a round one for Anglo-Saxons, while in Ireland and Scotland the particular style of the penannular or Celtic brooch was most common.
In all areas the brooch could be a highly elaborate piece of jewellery in precious metal at the top of society, with the most elaborate Celtic brooches, like the Tara Brooch and Hunterston Brooch , perhaps the most ornate and finely made of all. However the trend during the century was for hem-lengths to shorten for all classes. However, in the second half of the century, courtiers are often shown, if they have the figure for it, wearing nothing over their closely tailored cotehardie.
A French chronicle records: This was a most astonishing thing for the people". At this period, the most dignified figures, like King Charles in the illustration, continue to wear long overgowns—although as the Royal Chamberlain, de Vaudetar was himself a person of very high rank. This abandonment of the gown to emphasise a tight top over the torso, with breeches or trousers below, was to become the distinctive feature of European men's fashion for centuries to come.
Men had carried purses up to this time because tunics did not provide pockets. The funeral effigy and "achievements" of Edward, the Black Prince in Canterbury Cathedral , who died in , show the military version of the same outline.
Over armour he is shown wearing a short fitted arming-coat or jupon or gipon , the original of which was hung above and still survives. This has the quartered arms of England and France, with a rather similar effect to a parti-coloured jacket.
The "charges" figures of the arms are embroidered in gold on linen pieces, appliquéd onto coloured silk velvet fields. It is vertically quilted, with wool stuffing and a silk satin lining. This type of coat, originally worn out of sight under armour, was in fashion as an outer garment from about until early the next century. Only this and a child's version Chartres Cathedral survive. Edward's son, King Richard II of England , led a court that, like many in Europe late in the century, was extremely refined and fashion-conscious.
He himself is credited with having invented the handkerchief ; "little pieces [of cloth] for the lord King to wipe and clean his nose," appear in the Household Rolls accounts , which is the first documentation of their use.
He distributed jewelled livery badges with his personal emblem of the white hart deer to his friends, like the one he himself wears in the Wilton Diptych above. In the miniature left of Chaucer reading to his court both men and women wear very high collars and quantities of jewellery.
The King standing to the left of Chaucer; his face has been defaced wears a patterned gold-coloured costume with matching hat. Most of the men wear chaperon hats, and the women have their hair elaborately dressed. Male courtiers enjoyed wearing fancy-dress for festivities; the disastrous Bal des Ardents in in Paris is the most famous example. Men as well as women wore decorated and jewelled clothes; for the entry of the Queen of France into Paris in , the Duke of Burgundy wore a velvet doublet embroidered with forty sheep and forty swans, each with a pearl bell round its neck.
A new garment, the houppelande , appeared around and was to remain fashionable well into the next century. The extravagance of the sleeves was criticised by moralists. During this century, the chaperon made a transformation from being a utilitarian hood with a small cape to becoming a complicated and fashionable hat worn by the wealthy in town settings. This came when they began to be worn with the opening for the face placed instead on the top of the head.
Belts were worn below waist at all times, and very low on the hips with the tightly fitted fashions of the latter half of the century. Belt pouches or purses were used, and long daggers, usually hanging diagonally to the front. In armour, the century saw increases in the amount of plate armour worn, and by the end of the century the full suit had been developed, although mixtures of chain mail and plate remained more common. The visored bascinet helmet was a new development in this century.
Ordinary soldiers were lucky to have a mail hauberk , and perhaps some cuir bouilli "boiled leather" knee or shin pieces. The innermost layer of a woman's clothing was a linen or woolen chemise or smock , some fitting the figure and some loosely garmented, although there is some mention of a "breast girdle" or "breast band" which may have been the precursor of a modern bra.
Women also wore hose or stockings, although women's hose generally only reached to the knee. All classes and both sexes are usually shown sleeping naked—special nightwear only became common in the 16th century  —yet some married women wore their chemises to bed as a form of modesty and piety.
Many in the lower classes wore their undergarments to bed because of the cold weather at night time and since their beds usually consisted of a straw mattress and a few sheets, the undergarment would act as another layer. Over the chemise, women wore a loose or fitted gown called a cotte or kirtle , usually ankle or floor-length, and with trains for formal occasions.
Fitted kirtles had full skirts made by adding triangular gores to widen the hem without adding bulk at the waist.
Early medieval European dress, from about to , changed very vip7fps.tk main feature of the period was the meeting of late Roman costume with that of the invading peoples who moved into Europe over this period. For a period of several centuries, people in many countries dressed differently depending on whether they identified with the old Romanised population, or the new populations. European Fashion From the "Turkish led to increased demand for clothing and new clothing styles. 55 These new styles clearly demonstrate how ineffectual the old order of state regulations on dress the European fashion landscape demonstrates the degree to which the historical diversity of European fashion oscillated between European self. Shop for customizable Old European City clothing on Zazzle. Check out our t-shirts, polo shirts, hoodies, & more great items. Start browsing today!